Along with the rise o f democratic regimes in the third world, vote buying—the exchange o f material benefits for votes—has become a key component ofelectoral mobilization in manyyoung democracies. Is that true that the patronage and clientelism are the only determinantfactorfor explaining the widespreadofvote buying activities
in the less developed countries? Scholarly literature on clientelism can be divided into three categories. Thefirst is a determinist view o f clientelism that is congruent with modernization theory ’s argument. The second camp is the essentialist argument. Clientelism is viewed as a product o f social and cultural proclivity. The third academic tradition on clientelism is the institutionalist camp. This intellectual strand emphasizes political and institutional designs implicating to the widespread o f clientelism such as competitive elections and multiparty system, electoral rules, and decentralization.